Abstract The present moment in the history of higher education requires setting strategies and specific action plans to guarantee a place in the highly competitive and demanding world scenario. The incorporation of information and communication technologies is one of the feasible paths to be considered but this requires formulating proposals insuring appropriate use of said technologies seeking improvement of education quality. For this purpose Universidad de La Sabana has developed an instructional design model based on learning objects.
Instructional Design Much is known from decades of research with children, college students, and older adults about the conditions that affect cognition and learning and how cognition and learning change across the life span.
In this chapter, we describe principles of learning that have sufficiently strong and broad support to warrant their application to the design of instruction for adolescents and adults. There is substantial convergence between the conditions that facilitate Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Improving Adult Literacy Instruction: Options for Practice and Research.
The National Academies Press.
This convergence leads to having greater confidence in the findings and further indicates the value of incorporating them into the design of instruction for other populations, such as adult learners.
How to use the principles of learning and effective literacy instruction presented in this report to substantially enhance the literacy of diverse populations outside school is an important question for future research. Learners who achieve expertise tend to be self-regulated Azevedo and Cromley, ; Pintrich, b; Schunk and Zimmerman, ; Winne, They formulate learning goals, track progress on these goals, identify their own knowledge deficits, detect contradictions, ask good questions, search relevant information sources for answers, make inferences when answers are not directly available, and initiate steps to build knowledge at deep levels of mastery.
The expert learner forms conceptually rich and organized representations of knowledge that resist forgetting, can be retrieved automatically, and can be applied flexibly across tasks and situations.
The development of expertise has specific features: Experts acquire and maintain skill through consistent and long-term engagement with domain-relevant activities, deliberate practice, and corrective feedback Ericsson, Experts notice features and meaningful patterns in situations and tasks that are not noticed by novices Chase and Simon, ; Chi, Glaser, and Rees, ; Rawson and van Overschelde, Experts have content knowledge that is organized around core mental models and concepts that reflect deep understanding Mosenthal, ; Vitale, Romance, and Dolan, Experts have the metacognitive skills to think about and apply strategies Hacker, Dunlosky, and Graesser, Expert knowledge is tuned and conditionalized, so it includes representing the contexts in which particular knowledge, skills, and strategies apply Anderson et al.
Experts retrieve and execute relevant knowledge and skills automatically, which enables them to perform well on complex tasks and to free cognitive resources for more attention-demanding activities Ackerman, Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Within certain physical limits of speed and endurance associated with aging and health status, experts retain domain-related skills through adulthood as long as they are practiced Krampe and Charness, Expertise is usually difficult to achieve—and for a complex skill such as literacy requires many hours of practice over many years—experts tend to have 1, hours of experience in their field of expertise Chi, Glaser, and Farr, With respect to literacy expertise taught in schools, an hour per day from kindergarten through twelfth grade amounts to about 2, hours in total, after taking out the inevitable days when no real instruction occurs, which is at the low end of the range needed to gain expertise.
Adult literacy learners can be assumed to have missed out on many of these hours or to need substantially more practice. Adults bring varied goals to adult literacy education, but it is clear that given the hours of practice needed to develop literacy skills for functioning well in the realms of work, family, education, civic engagement, and so on, instruction needs to be designed to ensure that learning proceeds as efficiently as possible.
Efficiency is especially important considering that adolescents and adults live in complex worlds with many competing demands Riediger, Li, and Lindenberger, 4.
Principles of Learning for Instructional Design. Much is known from decades of research with children, college students, and older adults about the conditions that affect cognition and learning and how cognition and learning change across the life regardbouddhiste.com://regardbouddhiste.com · a proposal of instructional design/development model for game-like learning environments: the fid2ge model a thesis submitted to the graduate school of natural and applied regardbouddhiste.com For a learning object (LO) to have instructional impact, it must embody explicit planning for learning, intentional instructional design (ID).
Solid ID is a critical part of reusable LO design (Longmire, ; Wiley, ; Douglas, ; and Sosteric and Hesemeier, )regardbouddhiste.com · The present moment in the history of higher education requires setting strategies and specific action plans to guarantee a place in the highly competitive and demanding world regardbouddhiste.com://regardbouddhiste.com?id=EJ Production of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE): The role of the instructional design 13 Towards an Instructional Design Model based on Learning Objects In general terms, instructional design is defined not only as a fundamental stage in the process of generation of VLE, but as a process regardbouddhiste.com · the development of reusable online learning resources for instructional design students based on the principles of learning objects by abdullah mohammed al-shehriregardbouddhiste.com