Autistic spectrum disorder ASD: Learning disabilities can include developmental speech and language disorders and academic skills disorders. Adolescents and adults with ADHD are at increased risk of substance abuse. They can also occur as a side effect of medications used to treat ADHD.
What factors contribute to ADHD? Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder. It influences behavior as a result.
The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Researchers believe that genetics, nutrition, central nervous system problems during development, and other factors play a significant role according to the Mayo Clinic.
Researchers have found that ADHD runs in families in twin and family studies. You and your siblings are more likely to have ADHD if your mother or father has it.
No one has yet been able to find exactly which genes influence ADHD. Preliminary research indicates that this gene affects dopamine receptors in the brain. Some people with ADHD have a variation of this gene.
This has led many experts to believe that it may play a role in the development of the condition. There is likely more than one gene responsible for ADHD. Lead exposure in children may affect the level of education they achieve. Exposure to organophosphate pesticides may also be linked to ADHD.
These pesticides are chemicals sprayed on lawns and agricultural products. Nutrition and ADHD symptoms There is no concrete evidence that food dyes and preservatives may cause hyperactivity in some children according to the Mayo Clinic. Foods with artificial coloring include most processed and packaged snack foods.
Sodium benzoate preservative is found in fruit pies, jams, soft drinks, and relishes. Smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy Perhaps the strongest link between the environment and ADHD occurs before a child is born.
Children who were exposed to alcohol and drugs while in the womb are more likely to have ADHD according to a study. There are many myths about what causes ADHD. Research has found no evidence that ADHD is caused by: None of these factors have been proven to directly cause ADHD.
Medically reviewed by Timothy J.The high heritability of ADHD symptoms has been repeatedly demonstrated, but few studies have investigated the extent to which it is the same genetic influences that operate across development, or new genes emerging at different developmental periods.
Connolly JJ, et al. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and pharmacotherapy — Past, present, and future: A review of the changing landscape of drug therapy.
Therapeutic Innovation and Regulatory Science. ; Attention (). deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan.
Annual Review of Medicine, Knouse, LE, & Safren, SA (), Current Status of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for. Domschke K, Sheehan K, Lowe N, Kirley A, Mullins C, O'Sullivan R, Freitag C, Becker T, Conroy J, Fitzgerald M, et al: Association analysis of the monoamine oxidase A and B genes with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an Irish sample: preferential transmission of the MAO-A G allele to affected children.
However, to our knowledge, no study to date has examined the genetic and environmental influences explaining interindividual differences in the developmental course of ADHD symptoms from childhood to adolescence (ie, systematic decreases or increases with age).
Dec 02, · Attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is a global public health burden. Identification of health-related behavioral risk factors including diet quality and physical and sedentary activities for ADHD is important for prioritizing behavioral intervention strategies to improve mental health.