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The body of the Bidirectional Algorithm uses bidirectional character types, explicit formatting characters, and bracket pairs to produce a list of resolved levels.
This resolution process consists of the following steps: Applying rule P1 to split the text into paragraphs, and for each of these: Applying rules P2 and P3 to determine the paragraph level. Applying rule X1 which employs rules X2 — X8 to determine explicit embedding levels and directions.
Applying rule X9 to remove many control characters from further consideration. Applying rule X10 to split the paragraph into isolating run sequences and for each of these: Applying rules W1 — W7 to resolve weak types.
Applying rules N0 — N2 to resolve neutral types.
Applying rules I1 — I2 to resolve implicit embedding levels. Split the text into separate paragraphs. A paragraph separator type B is kept with the previous paragraph.
Within each paragraph, apply all the other rules of this algorithm. In each paragraph, find the first character of type L, AL, or R while skipping over any characters between an isolate initiator and its matching PDI or, if it has no matching PDI, the end of the paragraph. Because paragraph separators delimit text in this algorithm, the character found by this rule will generally be the first strong character after a paragraph separator or at the very beginning of the text.
The characters between an isolate initiator and its matching PDI are ignored by this rule because a directional isolate is supposed to have the same effect on the ordering of the surrounding text as a neutral character, and the rule ignores neutral characters.
The characters between an isolate initiator and its matching PDI are ignored by this rule even if the depth limit as defined in rules X5a through X5c below prevents the isolate initiator from raising the embedding level.
This is meant to make the rule easier to implement.
Embedding initiators but not the characters within the embedding are ignored in this rule. If a character is found in P2 and it is of type AL or R, then set the paragraph embedding level to one; otherwise, set it to zero.
Whenever a higher-level protocol specifies the paragraph level, rules P2 and P3 may be overridden: This performs a logical pass over the paragraph, applying rules X2 — X8 to each characters in turn. The following variables are used during this pass: A directional override status. A directional isolate status.
For efficiency, that last entry can be kept in a separate variable instead of on the directional status stack, but it is easier to explain the algorithm without that optimization.
At the start of the pass, the directional status stack is initialized to an entry reflecting the paragraph embedding level, with the directional override status neutral and the directional isolate status false; this entry is not popped off until the end of the paragraph.As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students%(6).
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