The word "socialism" often implies two quite different phenomena: A doctrine and an appeal based on it, a program for changing life, and A social structure that exists in time and space. The most obvious examples include Marxism as contained in the "classic" writings of Marx and others and the social structure that exists in the U. Among the fundamental principles of the state doctrine in these countries is the assertion that the connection between the two phenomena is very simple.
This critique will also look at themes such as continuity examining how Reich manages to create this against a backdrop of many different rhythmssocial and philosophical influences on the piece, and the effect of previous compositions on the work.
However, we shall commence with a short synopsis of "Different Trains". The piece is scored for a live string quartet, two pre-recorded string quartets, sampled voices, and sampled train sounds from the 's and 's.
Some of the voice fragments are taken from interviews Reich conducted, others are extracted from the Yale University sound archives of the Jewish Holocaust. She is interviewed along with Lawrence Davis, a retired black porter, who worked the trains between New York and Los Angeles.
Had Reich been in Europe at this time, his Jewish faith would have caused him to experience very different train journeys, hence the title. The work falls into three movements: America before the war, Europe during the war, and the subsequent post-war situation.
Reich speaks of the work as a "music documentary" Reich discusses this in an interview on Channel 4 Different Trains, broadcast in the UK on 8th April, and anticipates many more examples of this style in the future. What is so revolutionary about the work is the fact that the human beings' speech intonation has become the libretto, which directly forms the music.
Reich has "sampled" fragments from his interviews, and then meticulously notated the melodic line of the speech. Developments in music technology in the late 's enabled Reich to return to the root of music, namely, language.
What Arnold Schoenberg attempted with "Sprechgesag" music half-way between spoken words and melody, such as in "Pierre Lunaire", in merely foreshadows a previously undreamt of genre were diction and music could be inextricably bond together as one force.
We might observe that such a form enables social "truths" to be exposed more accurately. Compositions such as "The Desert Music" and "Tehillium" concerning the oppression of the Jews betray Reich's inclination for depicting social and political issues in word setting. Music Technology and Different Trains Let us now consider the role of electronics in this piece in closer detail.
Different TrainsThe Guardian LondonOctober This is not exactly what he wrote, "Electronic music as such will gradually die and be absorbed into the ongoing music of people singing and playing instruments".
In he was advocating the passive influence of electronics in future composition. With "Different Trains" electronics are integral to the structure of the music. Computer sampling facilitates the capturing of language for direct manipulation and development by the composer.
Reich used a Casio FZ-1 digital sampling keyboard to manipulate the recordings. Music Sampling in Different Trains This work uses three facets of sampling: This is usually the norm for most of the fragments, except where the sample is too short to be sub-divided, such as in "" first movement.
There are a number of fragments which are used again within the same movement, or in other movements. At one time, altering the pitch of a sample also altered the duration.
For instance, a sample at middle C and one second long sounded at two octaves lower might contain a duration of three or four seconds. The latest developments in music technology at the time from research at IRCAM enable sounds to be transformed in pitch without altering other characteristics of the sample.
I would speculate that Reich has used this as an aid to continuity, especially in the first movement where most of the samples fall around the key of F minor.
An example of this is the reverse of a steam engine whistle, at the close of the second movement. This work must not be reproduced in any form without the express permission of the copyright holder.Database of FREE English essays - We have thousands of free essays across a wide range of subject areas.
Sample English essays! "Different Trains" was first performed by the Kronos Quartet at the Queen Elizabeth Hall, London, on the 2nd November, The piece is scored for a live string quartet, two pre-recorded string quartets, sampled voices, and sampled train sounds from the 's and 's.
Philip Harnden was the publisher of The Other Side, a magazine of spirituality and social action, for a dozen years.A Quaker, he has written on subjects as diverse as the land rights of Native Americans and the spiritual life of Fritz Eichenberg.
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