This characterisation is generally acceptable in the sense that certain ethnic groups and governmental societies were split and located within the colonial state territories of different European powers, following the Berlin Conference and the subsequent legal instruments. Thus, although Nigeria formally became one entity in after the amalgamation of the then northern and southern protectorates along with Lagos, many members of different social groups found their kinsmen and friendly neighbours just outside Nigeria's political boundaries. Yet, peoples in the pre-colonial geographical region now occupied by Nigeria and her neighbours such as the Cameroun, Chad, Niger and Benin Republics, were not only linked by blood or descent but also by trade and commerce, as well as by relations of friendship and conflict. The above factors defined the nature of international relations in the region.
Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures. At its simplest, structuralism claims that the nature of every element in any given situation has no significance by itself, and in fact is determined by all the other elements involved in that situation.
The full significance of any entity cannot be perceived unless and until it is integrated into the structure of which it forms a part Hawkes, p. Structuralists believe that all human activity is constructed, not natural or "essential.
Semiology Semiotics, simply put, is the science of signs. Semiology proposes that a great diversity of our human action and productions--our bodily postures and gestures, the the social rituals we perform, the clothes we wear, the meals we serve, the buildings we inhabit--all convey "shared" meanings to members of a particular culture, and so can be analyzed as signs which function in diverse kinds of signifying systems.
Linguistics the study of verbal signs and structures is only one branch of semiotics but supplies the basic methods and terms which are used in the study of all other social sign systems Abrams, p.
Binary Opposition - "pairs of mutually-exclusive signifiers in a paradigm set representing categories which are logically opposed and which together define a complete universe of discourse relevant ontological domaine.
In such oppositions each term necessarily implies its opposite and there is no middle term" Daniel Chandler. Symbol - According to Saussure, "words are not symbols which correspond to referents, but rather are 'signs' which are made up of two parts like two sides of a sheet of paper: The distinction is important because Saussure contended that the relationship between signifier and signified is arbitrary; the only way we can distinguish meaning is by difference one sign or word differs from another.
Instead, meaning--the interpretation of a sign--can exist only in relationship with other signs. Selden and Widdowson use the sign system of traffic lights as an example. The color red, in that system, signifies "stop," even though "there is no natural bond between red and stop" Meaning is derived entirely through difference, "a system of opposites and contrasts," e.
Structuralist narratology - "a form of structuralism espoused by Vladimir Propp, Tzvetan Todorov, Roland Barthes, and Gerard Genette that illustrates how a story's meaning develops from its overall structure its langue rather than from each individual story's isolated theme.
To ascertain a text's meaning, narratologists emphasize grammatical elements such as verb tenses and the relationships and configurations of figures of speech within the story" Bressler - see General Resources below.
Northwestern UP, Hill and Wang, The Pleasure of the Text. Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature.
U of California P, Jefferson, Anne and David Robey. Revolution in Poetic Language and Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art. After the New Criticism. The Raw and the Cooked. John and Doreen Weighman.
Semiotics of Poetry Peirce, Charles. Values in a Universe of Chance: Selected Writings of Charles S. The Morphology of the Folktale.
U of Texas P, Course in General Linguistics. The Subject of Semiotics.
A Survey of Semiotics.The National Women’s History theme presents the opportunity to honor women who have shaped America’s history and its future through their tireless commitment to ending discrimination against women and girls.
Nigeria's social boundaries are often described as artificial. This characterisation is generally acceptable in the sense that certain ethnic groups and governmental societies were split and located within the colonial state territories of different European powers, following the Berlin Conference and the subsequent legal instruments.
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An introduction to how issues about Africa are covered, the legacy of colonialism and some additional context for many of Africa’s woes. WOMEN’S RiGHTS ARE HUMAN RiGHTS NOTE The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the.