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Medieval music While musical life was undoubtedly rich in the early Medieval era, as attested by artistic depictions of instruments, writings about music, and other records, the only repertory of music which has survived from before to the present day is the plainsong liturgical music of the Roman Catholic Church, the largest part of which is called Gregorian chant.
Pope Gregory Iwho gave his name to the musical repertory and may himself have been a composer, is usually claimed to be the originator of the musical portion of the liturgy in its present form, though the sources giving details on his contribution date from more than a hundred years after his death.
Many scholars believe that his reputation has been exaggerated by legend. Most of the chant repertory was composed anonymously in the centuries between the time of Gregory and Charlemagne. During the 9th century several important developments took place. First, there was a major effort by the Church to unify the many chant A history of baroque era, and suppress many of them in favor of the Gregorian liturgy.
Second, the earliest polyphonic music was sung, a form of parallel singing known as organum. Third, and of greatest significance for music history, notation was reinvented after a lapse of about five hundred years, though it would be several more centuries before a system of pitch and rhythm notation evolved having the precision and flexibility that modern musicians take for granted.
Several schools of polyphony flourished in the period after Much of the later secular music of the early Renaissance evolved from the forms, ideas, and the musical aesthetic of the troubadours, courtly poets and itinerant musicians, whose culture was largely exterminated during the Albigensian Crusade in the early A history of baroque era century.
Forms of sacred music which developed during the late 13th century included the motetconductusdiscantand clausulae. One unusual development was the Geisslerliederthe music of wandering bands of flagellants during two periods: Their music mixed folk song styles with penitential or apocalyptic texts.
The 14th century in European music history is dominated by the style of the ars novawhich by convention is grouped with the medieval era in music, even though it had much in common with early Renaissance ideals and aesthetics.
Much of the surviving music of the time is secular, and tends to use the formes fixes: Most pieces in these forms are for one to three voices, likely with instrumental accompaniment: Renaissance music The beginning of the Renaissance in music is not as clearly marked as the beginning of the Renaissance in the other arts, and unlike in the other arts, it did not begin in Italybut in northern Europe, specifically in the area currently comprising central and northern Francethe Netherlandsand Belgium.
The style of the Burgundian composers, as the first generation of the Franco-Flemish school is known, was at first a reaction against the excessive complexity and mannered style of the late 14th century ars subtiliorand contained clear, singable melody and balanced polyphony in all voices.
The most famous composers of the Burgundian school in the midth century are Guillaume DufayGilles Binchoisand Antoine Busnois. By the middle of the 15th century, composers and singers from the Low Countries and adjacent areas began to spread across Europe, especially into Italy, where they were employed by the papal chapel and the aristocratic patrons of the arts such as the Medicithe Esteand the Sforza families.
They carried their style with them: Principal forms of sacred musical composition at the time were the massthe motetand the laude ; secular forms included the chansonthe frottolaand later the madrigal.
The invention of printing had an immense influence on the dissemination of musical styles, and along with the movement of the Franco-Flemish musicians, contributed to the establishment of the first truly international style in European music since the unification of Gregorian chant under Charlemagne.
Music in the generation after Josquin explored increasing complexity of counterpoint ; possibly the most extreme expression is in the music of Nicolas Gombertwhose contrapuntal complexities influenced early instrumental music, such as the canzona and the ricercarultimately culminating in Baroque fugal forms.
By the middle of the 16th century, the international style began to break down, and several highly diverse stylistic trends became evident: The music of the Venetian school included the development of orchestrationornamented instrumental parts, and continuo bass parts, all of which occurred within a span of several decades around Famous composers in Venice included the Gabrielis, Andrea and Giovannias well as Claudio Monteverdione of the most significant innovators at the end of the era.
Most parts of Europe had active and well-differentiated musical traditions by late in the century. In England, composers such as Thomas Tallis and William Byrd wrote sacred music in a style similar to that written on the continent, while an active group of home-grown madrigalists adapted the Italian form for English tastes: Germany cultivated polyphonic forms built on the Protestant choraleswhich replaced the Roman Catholic Gregorian Chant as a basis for sacred music, and imported the style of the Venetian school the appearance of which defined the start of the Baroque era there.
In addition, German composers wrote enormous amounts of organ music, establishing the basis for the later Baroque organ style which culminated in the work of J. One of the most revolutionary movements in the era took place in Florence in the s and s, with the work of the Florentine Cameratawho ironically had a reactionary intent: Chief among them were Vincenzo Galileithe father of the astronomer, and Giulio Caccini.
The fruits of their labors was a declamatory melodic singing style known as monodyand a corresponding staged dramatic form: The first operas, written aroundalso define the end of the Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque eras.
Music prior to was modal rather than tonal. Several theoretical developments late in the 16th century, such as the writings on scales on modes by Gioseffo Zarlino and Franchinus Gaffuriusled directly to the development of common practice tonality.History is fascinating.
The idea of so many events to have taken place over the years can be very intriguing. One of the most significant eras in history was the Baroque era, that lasted for more than a century. This article takes a brief look at this era.
It was characteristic of Baroque architecture that, though examples are to be found almost throughout Europe and Latin America, they differ notably from one country to another.
How is it, then, that they are all designated by a single term? Partly for convenience, in order to summarize the art of a. Counterculture Era: Peacock Revolution. The peacock has replaced the penguin and once-sacrosanct traditional formal wear has been assailed by startling fabrics, designs and colors.
Brief History of Classical Music Eras. Musical history during the Medieval Times, Renaissance, Classical Period, Baroque, Early and Romantic Times.
music classical music history origin beginning baroque medieval classical . Artists by Movement: The Baroque Era Europe, 17th Century Baroque Art developed in Europe around , as an reaction against the intricate and formulaic Mannerism that dominated the Late Renaissance.
Baroque art is less complex, more realistic and more emotionally affecting than Mannerist art. While the Baroque style profoundly affected the rest of Europe, the Dutch perfected their own characteristic style, which grew directly from their pride in political and commerical accomplishments and emphasized the beauty of local.